Alterations in the oral microbiome in HIV-infected participants after antiretroviral therapy administration are influenced by immune status.

TitleAlterations in the oral microbiome in HIV-infected participants after antiretroviral therapy administration are influenced by immune status.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsPresti RM, Handley SA, Droit L, Ghannoum M, Jacobson M, Shiboski CH, Webster-Cyriaque J, Brown T, Yin MT, Overton ET
JournalAIDS
Volume32
Issue10
Pagination1279-1287
Date Published2018 06 19
ISSN1473-5571
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the oral bacterial microbiome in HIV-infected participants at baseline and after 24 weeks of EFV/FTC/TDF.

DESIGN: Thirty-five participants co-enrolled in two AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) studies, A5272 and A5280, with paired saliva samples and complete data sets were assessed.

METHODS: Paired saliva samples were evaluated for bacterial microbiome using 16S rDNA PCR followed by Illumina sequencing. Diversity and differential abundance was compared between groups. A random forest classification scheme was used to determine the contribution of parameters in classifying participants' CD4 T-cell count.

RESULTS: Bacterial communities demonstrated considerable variability both within participants and between timepoints, although they became more similar after 24 weeks of ART. At baseline, both the number of taxa detected and the average alpha diversity were variable between participants, but did not differ significantly based on CD4 cell count, viral load or other factors. After 24 weeks of ART samples obtained from participants with persistently low CD4 T-cell counts had significantly higher bacterial richness and diversity. Several differentially abundant taxa, including Porphyromonas species associated with periodontal disease, were identified, which discriminated between baseline and posttreatment samples. Analysis demonstrated that although inflammatory markers are important in untreated disease, the salivary microbiome may play an important role in CD4 T-cell count recovery after ART.

CONCLUSION: Shifts in the oral microbiome after ART initiation are complex, and may play an important role in immune function and inflammatory disease.

DOI10.1097/QAD.0000000000001811
Alternate JournalAIDS
PubMed ID29851662
PubMed Central IDPMC6198320
Grant ListUM1 AI069439 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
UM1 AI068634 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
UM1 AI68636 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
UM1 AI106701 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
UM1 AI106716 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
UM1 AI068636 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States