Frailty, Neurocognitive Impairment, or Both in Predicting Poor Health Outcomes Among Adults Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

TitleFrailty, Neurocognitive Impairment, or Both in Predicting Poor Health Outcomes Among Adults Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsErlandson KM, Perez J, Abdo M, Robertson K, Ellis RJ, Koletar SL, Kalayjian R, Taiwo B, Palella FJ, Tassiopoulos K
JournalClin Infect Dis
Volume68
Issue1
Pagination131-138
Date Published2019 Jan 01
ISSN1537-6591
Abstract

Background: Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is strongly associated with frailty in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH); the overlap of frailty and NCI and the impact on health outcomes in PLWH are unknown.

Methods: PLWH in a longitudinal, observational study of aging completed entry evaluations for frailty and NCI. Outcomes of falls (recurrent) increased limitations in independent activities of daily living (IADL), or mortality were combined. Poisson regression models estimated prevalence ratios (PR) for ≥1 outcome over 2 years.

Results: Among 987 participants, the median age at entry was 51 years; 19% were female; the median CD4 count was 616 cells/µL; and HIV-1 RNA was <200 copies/mL in 94%. Most (79%) participants had neither frailty nor NCI; 2% had both; 4% frailty only; and 15% NCI only. Over 2 years of observation, 100 (10%) participants experienced recurrent falls; 175 (18%) had worsening IADL limitations; 17 (2%) died; and 254 (26%) experienced ≥1 poor health outcome. In adjusted models, frailty with NCI was associated with more than double the risk of a poor health outcome (PR 2.65; 95% CI 1.98, 3.54); a significant association was also seen with frailty alone (PR 2.26; 95%CI 1.71, 2.99) and NCI alone (PR 1.73; 95% CI 1.36, 2.20).

Conclusions: The presence of frailty with NCI was associated with a greater risk of falls, disability, or death in PLWH than NCI alone. Interventions that target prevention or reversal of both frailty and NCI (such as increased physical activity) may significantly limit poor health outcomes among PLWH.

DOI10.1093/cid/ciy430
Alternate JournalClin. Infect. Dis.
PubMed ID29788039
PubMed Central IDPMC6293002
Grant ListUM1 AI069494 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
UM1 AI069432 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
K23 AG050260 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
UM1 AI069471 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG054366 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
UM1 AI068634 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
UM1 AI106701 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
U01 AI068634 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
UM1 AI068636 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States