High Accuracy of Common HIV-Related Oral Disease Diagnoses by Non-Oral Health Specialists in the AIDS Clinical Trial Group.

TitleHigh Accuracy of Common HIV-Related Oral Disease Diagnoses by Non-Oral Health Specialists in the AIDS Clinical Trial Group.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsShiboski CH, Chen H, Secours R, Lee A, Webster-Cyriaque J, Ghannoum M, Evans S, Bernard D, Reznik D, Dittmer DP, Hosey L, Severe P, Aberg JA
Corporate AuthorsOral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance, Subcommittee of the AIDS Clinical Trial Group
JournalPLoS One
Date Published2015
KeywordsAdult, Aged, Calibration, CD4 Lymphocyte Count, Clinical Competence, Cross-Sectional Studies, Dental Hygienists, Dentists, Diagnosis, Oral, Diagnostic Errors, Female, Haiti, Health Personnel, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Mouth Diseases, Oral Medicine, Otolaryngology, Prevalence, Sensitivity and Specificity, Specialization, United States, Viral Load, Young Adult

OBJECTIVE: Many studies include oral HIV-related endpoints that may be diagnosed by non-oral-health specialists (non-OHS) like nurses or physicians. Our objective was to assess the accuracy of clinical diagnoses of HIV-related oral lesions made by non-OHS compared to diagnoses made by OHS.

METHODS: A5254, a cross-sectional study conducted by the Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance within the AIDS Clinical Trial Group, enrolled HIV-1-infected adults participants from six clinical trial units (CTU) in the US (San Francisco, New York, Chapel Hill, Cleveland, Atlanta) and Haiti. CTU examiners (non-OHS) received standardized training on how to perform an oral examination and make clinical diagnoses of specific oral disease endpoints. Diagnoses by calibrated non-OHS were compared to those made by calibrated OHS, and sensitivity and specificity computed.

RESULTS: Among 324 participants, the majority were black (73%), men (66%), and the median CD4+ cell count 138 cells/mm(3). The overall frequency of oral mucosal disease diagnosed by OHS was 43% in US sites, and 90% in Haiti. Oral candidiasis (OC) was detected in 153 (47%) by OHS, with erythematous candidiasis (EC) the most common type (39%) followed by pseudomembranous candidiasis (PC; 26%). The highest prevalence of OC (79%) was among participants in Haiti, and among those with CD4+ cell count ≤ 200 cells/mm(3) and HIV-1 RNA > 1000 copies/mL (71%). The sensitivity and specificity of OC diagnoses by non-OHS were 90% and 92% (for EC: 81% and 94%; PC: 82% and 95%). Sensitivity and specificity were also high for KS (87% and 94%, respectively), but sensitivity was < 60% for HL and oral warts in all sites combined. The Candida culture confirmation of OC clinical diagnoses (as defined by ≥ 1 colony forming unit per mL of oral/throat rinse) was ≥ 93% for both PC and EC.

CONCLUSION: Trained non-OHS showed high accuracy of clinical diagnoses of OC in comparison with OHS, suggesting their usefulness in studies in resource-poor settings, but detection of less common lesions may require OHS.

Alternate JournalPLoS ONE
PubMed ID26148192
PubMed Central IDPMC4492974
Grant ListU01AI068634 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
U01AI068636 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
UM1 AI068634 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
UM1 AI068636 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
UM1 AI069423 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States