Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence and treatment failure in a large scale multi-national trial of antiretroviral therapy for HIV: data from the ACTG A5175/PEARLS trial.

TitlePsychosocial predictors of non-adherence and treatment failure in a large scale multi-national trial of antiretroviral therapy for HIV: data from the ACTG A5175/PEARLS trial.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsSafren SA, Biello KB, Smeaton L, Mimiaga MJ, Walawander A, Lama JR, Rana A, Nyirenda M, Kayoyo VM, Samaneka W, Joglekar A, Celentano D, Martinez A, Remmert JE, Nair A, Lalloo UG, Kumarasamy N, Hakim J, Campbell TB
Corporate AuthorsPEARLS(ACTG A5175) Study Team
JournalPLoS One
Volume9
Issue8
Paginatione104178
Date Published2014
ISSN1932-6203
KeywordsAdult, Anti-Retroviral Agents, Female, HIV Infections, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Models, Theoretical, Patient Compliance, Psychology, Quality of Life, Social Support, Treatment Outcome
Abstract

BACKGROUND: PEARLS, a large scale trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV (n = 1,571, 9 countries, 4 continents), found that a once-daily protease inhibitor (PI) based regimen (ATV+DDI+FTC), but not a once-daily non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI/NRTI) regimen (EFV+FTC/TDF), had inferior efficacy compared to a standard of care twice-daily NNRTI/NRTI regimen (EFV+3TC/ZDV). The present study examined non-adherence in PEARLS.

METHODS: Outcomes: non-adherence assessed by pill count and by self-report, and time to treatment failure. Longitudinal predictors: regimen, quality of life (general health perceptions  =  QOL-health, mental health  =  QOL-mental health), social support, substance use, binge drinking, and sexual behaviors. "Life-Steps" adherence counseling was provided.

RESULTS: In both pill-count and self-report multivariable models, both once-a-day regimens had lower levels of non-adherence than the twice-a-day standard of care regimen; although these associations attenuated with time in the self-report model. In both multivariable models, hard-drug use was associated with non-adherence, living in Africa and better QOL-health were associated with less non-adherence. According to pill-count, unprotected sex was associated with non-adherence. According to self-report, soft-drug use was associated with non-adherence and living in Asia was associated with less non-adherence. Both pill-count (HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.15, 2.09, p<.01) and self-report (HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.13, p<.01) non-adherence were significant predictors of treatment failure over 72 weeks. In multivariable models (including pill-count or self-report nonadherence), worse QOL-health, age group (younger), and region were also significant predictors of treatment failure.

CONCLUSION: In the context of a large, multi-national, multi-continent, clinical trial there were variations in adherence over time, with more simplified regimens generally being associated with better adherence. Additionally, variables such as QOL-health, regimen, drug-use, and region play a role. Self-report and pill-count adherence, as well as additional psychosocial variables, such QOL-health, age, and region, were, in turn, associated with treatment failure.

DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0104178
Alternate JournalPLoS ONE
PubMed ID25153084
PubMed Central IDPMC4143224
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