Tenofovir use and renal insufficiency among pregnant and general adult population of HIV-infected, ART-naïve individuals in Lilongwe, Malawi.

TitleTenofovir use and renal insufficiency among pregnant and general adult population of HIV-infected, ART-naïve individuals in Lilongwe, Malawi.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsJohnson DC, Chasela C, Maliwichi M, Mwafongo A, Akinkuotu A, Moses A, Jamieson DJ, Kourtis AP, King CC, van der Horst C, Hosseinipour MC
JournalPLoS One
Date Published2012
KeywordsAdenine, Adolescent, Adult, Anti-HIV Agents, Benzoxazines, Body Mass Index, CD4 Lymphocyte Count, Creatinine, Drug Combinations, Female, HIV Infections, Humans, Lamivudine, Malawi, Male, Organophosphonates, Pregnancy, Pregnancy Complications, Infectious, Renal Insufficiency, Tenofovir

BACKGROUND: The Malawian government recently changed its prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) regimen and plans to change its first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen to Tenofovir(TDF)/Lamivudine/Efavirenz as a fixed-dose combination tablet. Implementation could be challenging if baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl) screening were required to assess renal function prior to TDF therapy. Our goal is to determine predictors of CrCl<50 ml/min among HIV-infected, ART-naïve individuals.

METHODOLOGY: Data on HIV-infected, ART-naïve adults screened for enrollment into 5 HIV clinical trials in Lilongwe, Malawi were combined for a pooled analysis of predictors for CrCl<50 ml/min. CrCl was derived from the Cockroft-Gault equation. Multivariable logistic regression modeled the association of age, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin, CD4 cell count <350 cells/mm(3), gender, and pregnancy with CrCl<50 ml/min.

RESULTS: The analysis included 3508 patients with values for creatinine clearance. Most subjects were female (90.6%) with a median age of 26 years (IQR 22-29). The median CD4 cell count was 444 (IQR 298.0-561.0), and 85.2% percent of women in our study were pregnant. Few patients had CrCl<50 ml/min (n = 38, 1.1%). A BMI less than 18.5 in non-pregnant females (OR = 8.87, 95% CI = 2.45-32.09)) was associated with CrCl<50 ml/min. Hemoglobin level higher than 10 g/dL in males (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.56-0.86) and non-pregnant females (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.04-0.97) was protective against CrCl<50 ml/min.

DISCUSSION: Our findings indicate few patients would be excluded from a TDF-based antiretroviral regimen, suggesting baseline creatinine clearance assessment may not be necessary for implementation. However, in ART settings individuals with low BMI or anemia could potentially be at increased risk for lower CrCl.

Alternate JournalPLoS ONE
PubMed ID22848422
PubMed Central IDPMC3407169