Interaction of reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations conferring resistance to lamivudine and etravirine: effects on fitness and RT activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

TitleInteraction of reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations conferring resistance to lamivudine and etravirine: effects on fitness and RT activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsHu Z, Kuritzkes DR
JournalJ Virol
Volume85
Issue21
Pagination11309-14
Date Published2011 Nov
ISSN1098-5514
KeywordsAnti-HIV Agents, Drug Resistance, Viral, HIV Infections, HIV Reverse Transcriptase, HIV-1, Humans, Inhibitory Concentration 50, Lamivudine, Pyridazines, Virus Replication
Abstract

Resistance to the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors etravirine and rilpivirine (RPV) is conferred by the E138K mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT). Clinical trials of RPV administered with lamivudine or emtricitabine showed the emergence of E138K together with M184I, which confers lamivudine and emtricitabine resistance in most patients with virologic failure. To understand why M184I was favored over M184V, we determined the drug susceptibility, infectivity, relative fitness, and reverse transcriptase activity of HIV-1 carrying E138K/M184I or E138K/M184V mutations. Whereas the replication capacity (RC) of the single mutants was reduced compared to that of the wild type (WT), the RC of the two double mutants was comparable to that of the WT in the absence of drug. The RC of the E138K/M184I mutant in the presence of etravirine was significantly greater than that of the E138K and E138K/M184V mutants; the RC of the double mutants was greater than that of the M184I or M184V mutant. Fitness profiles and growth competition experiments showed that the E138K/M184I mutant had a significant replicative advantage over the E138K/M184V mutant in the presence of etravirine and lamivudine. The virion-associated RT activity of the E138K, M184I, or M184V virus was significantly reduced compared to that of the WT, whereas the RT activity of the E138K/M184I virus was significantly greater than that of the WT or E138K/M184V virus. These results suggest that the E138K and M184I/V mutations are mutually compensatory and may explain the frequent occurrence of E138K/M184I after the virologic failure of rilpivirine-, lamivudine-, and emtricitabine-containing regimens.

DOI10.1128/JVI.05578-11
Alternate JournalJ. Virol.
PubMed ID21849432
PubMed Central IDPMC3194991
Grant ListK24 RR16482 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States
U01 AI068636 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States