Journal of Clinical Investigation, July 2019
The persistence of HIV in sanctuary sites in the human body even in the presence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a potential barrier to HIV remission and cure. The central nervous system is one of those sanctuary sites and it has unique properties, in terms of cell composition and antiretroviral penetration. Because neurocognitive function can be compromised even in individuals whose HIV is well treated, it is important to understand HIV persistence in the nervous system. In the ACTG HIV Reservoirs Cohort Study (A5321), virally suppressed individuals with HIV taking long-term ART were tested for persistent HIV in their cerebrospinal fluid.